Традиции и праздники в США

    Дисциплина: Культурология
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Традиции и праздники в США

    American Holidays and Traditions

    It\'s Another New Year... (

    January 1)

    ...but for what reason?

    \"Happy New Year!\" That greeting will be said and heard for at least the first couple of weeks as a new year gets under way. But the day celebrated as New Year\'s Day in modern

    America was not always January 1.

    ANCIENT NEW YEARS

    The celebration of the new year is the oldest of all holidays. It was first observed in ancient Babylon about 4000 years ago. In the years around 2000 BC, the Babylonian New

    Year began with the first New Moon (actually the first visible

    cresent) after the Vernal Equinox (first day of spring).

    The beginning of spring is a logical time to start a new year. After all, it is the season of rebirth, of planting new crops, and of blossoming. January 1, on the other hand,

    has no astronomical nor agricultural significance. It is purely arbitrary.

    The Babylonian new year celebration lasted for eleven days. Each day had its own particular mode of celebration, but it is safe to say that modern New Year\'s Eve festivities

    pale in comparison.

    The Romans continued to observe the new year in late March, but their calendar was continually tampered with by various emperors so that the calendar soon became out of

    synchronization with the sun.

    In order to set the calendar right, the Roman senate, in 153 BC, declared January 1 to be the beginning of the new year. But tampering continued until Julius Caesar, in 46 BC,

    established what has come to be known as the Julian Calendar. It again established January 1 as the new year. But in order to synchronize the calendar with the sun, Caesar had to let

    the previous year drag on for 445 days.

    THE CHURCH\'S VIEW OF NEW YEAR CELEBRATIONS

    Although in the first centuries AD the Romans continued celebrating the new year, the early Catholic Church condemned the festivities as paganism. But as Christianity became

    more widespread, the early church began having its own religious observances concurrently with many of the pagan celebrations, and New Year\'s Day was no different. New Years is still

    observed as the Feast of Christ\'s Circumcision by some denominations.

    During the Middle Ages, the Church remained opposed to celebrating New Years. January 1 has been celebrated as a holiday by Western nations for only about the past 400

    years.

    NEW YEAR TRADITIONS

    Other traditions of the season include the making of New Year\'s resolutions. That tradition also dates back to the early Babylonians. Popular modern resolutions might include

    the promise to lose weight or quit smoking. The early Babylonian\'s most popular resolution was to return borrowed farm equipment.

    The Tournament of Roses Parade dates back to 1886. In that year, members of the Valley Hunt Club decorated their carriages with flowers. It celebrated the ripening of the orange

    crop in California.

    Although the Rose Bowl football game was first played as a part of the Tournament of Roses in 1902, it was replaced by Roman chariot races the following year. In 1916, the

    football game returned as the sports centerpiece of the festival.

    The tradition of using a baby to signify the new year was begun in Greece around 600 BC. It was their tradition at that time to celebrate their god of wine, Dionysus, by

    parading a baby in a basket, representing the annual rebirth of that god as the spirit of fertility. Early Egyptians also used a baby as a symbol of rebirth.

    Although the early Christians denounced the practice as pagan, the popularity of the baby as a symbol of rebirth forced the Church to reevaluate its position. The Church finally

    allowed its members to celebrate the new year with a baby, which was to symbolize the birth of the baby Jesus.

    The use of an image of a baby with a New Years banner as a symbolic representation of the new year was brought to early America by the Germans. They had used the effigy since

    the fourteenth century.

    FOR LUCK IN THE NEW YEAR

    Traditionally, it was thought that one could affect the ...

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