Поляризация света

    Дисциплина: Химия и физика
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Поляризация света

    ИНСТИТУТ ФИЗИЧЕСКИХ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЙ

    Реферат

    Поляризация света.

    Автор: Осипян Д.С.

    АШТАРАК 1999

    ^A^aa\"aa\'i`ea

    \'Od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y `I`a^e~n^aa\"e\"e`a. \"Id`e \'i`a\"e`e:`e`e \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e`e~o c`ad\"y\"a^i^a ^a \"id^i~n`od`a\'i~n`o^aa \'o~n`o`a\'i`a^a\"e`e^a`aa`o~n\"y ^a^ic\'a\'oae\"aa\'i\'i^ia

    ~n^i~n`o^i\"y\'i`ea, ^e^i`o^id^ia \'i`ac^u^a`ath`o \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^u`i \"i^i\"ea`i. A~a^i

    \"ida\"a~n`o`a^a\"e\"yth`o ^aa^e`o^id`a`i`e E `e B, `e`ia\'i\'oa`i^u`i`e ~n^i^i`o^aa`o~n`o^aa\'i\'i^i \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e`e`i ^aa^e`o^id^i`i `e `i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^i\'e `e\'i\"a\'o^e\"o`ea\'e. \"A\"e\"y ^i\"i`e~n`a\'i`e\"y ^a\"e`e\"y\'i`e\"y \"i^i\"e\"y \'i`a `i`a`oad`e`a\"e\"u\'i^ua ^i\'a\'ua^e`o^u \'ia^i\'a~o^i\"a`e`i^i

    ^a^aa~n`o`e ^a`o^id\'oth ~ad\'o\"i\"i\'o ^aa^e`o^id^i^a, `a `e`ia\'i\'i^i \"i\"e^i`o\'i^i~n`o\"u \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^i~a^i `o^i^e`a J, \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^ia ~n`ia`ua\'i`ea D `e `i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^u\'e ^aa^e`o^id H. \"Id^i~n`od`a\'i~n`o^aa\'i\'i^ua `e ^ada`ia\'i\'i^ua \"id^i`ec^a^i\"a\'i^ua \"i\"y`o`e

    \'o^e`ac`a\'i\'i^u~o ^aa^e`o^id^i^a ~n^a\"yc`a\'i^u \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`ea`i `I`a^e~n^aa\"e\"e`a.

    rot H =

    rot E= -

    div B= 0

    div D = 4

    \'Od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y `I`a^e~n^aa\"e\"e`a (1)-(4) ~n^a\"yc^u^a`ath`o \"i\"y`o\"u ^i~n\'i^i^a\'i^u~o

    ^aa\"e`e:`e\'i

    E, H, B, D `e J. \"Id`e c`a\"a`a\'i\'i^i`i d`a~n\"ida\"aa\"ea\'i`e`e c`ad\"y\"a^i^a `e `o^i^e^i^a \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y \"a^i\"i\'o~n^e`ath`o a\"a`e\'i~n`o^aa\'i\'i^ia daoa\'i`ea, ^e^i~a\"a`a ^e \'i`e`i \"a^i\'a`a^a\"e\"yth`o~n\"y ~n^i^i`o\'i^ioa\'i`e\"y , ^i\"i`e~n`e^a`ath`u`ea \"i^i^aa\"aa\'i`e\"y

    ^aa`ua~n`o^a \"i^i\"a ^a\"e`e\"y\'i`ea`i \"i^i\"e\"y, `o.\'i. `i`a`oad`e`a\"e\"u\'i^ua \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y. ^A ^i\'a`ua`i ~n\"e\'o:`aa ^i\'i`e \"a^i^a^i\"e\"u\'i^i ~n\"e^iae\'i^u, \'i^i \"a\"e\"y `oa\"e, \"i^i^e^i\"y`u`e~o~n\"y \"ad\'o~a ^i`o\'i^i~n`e`oa\"e\"u\'i^i \"ad\'o~a`a (`e\"e`e \'i`a~o^i\"a\"y`o~n\"y ^a ~n^i~n`o^i\"y\'i`e`e ^i:a\'i\"u `ia\"a\"ea\'i\'i^i~a^i

    \"a^a`eaea\'i`e\"y) `e ~n^i~n`o^i\"y`u`e~o `ec `ec^i`od^i\"i\'i^u~o ^aa`ua~n`o^a, \'y`o`e \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y \"id`e\'i`e`i`ath`o ^i`o\'i^i~n`e`oa\"e\"u\'i^i \"id^i~n`o\'oth ^o^id`i\'o.

    ^Aa\"e`e:`e\'i`a

    \'i`ac^u^a`aa`o~n\"y \'o\"aa\"e\"u\'i^i\'e \"id^i^a^i\"a`e`i^i~n`o\"uth,

    - \"a`e\'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^i\'e \"id^i\'i`e\"o`aa`i^i~n`o\"uth, `a

    - `i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^i\'e \"id^i\'i`e\"o`aa`i^i~n`o\"uth.

    ^A^i\"e\'i^i\'i^ia \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`ea. D`a~n~n`i^i`od`e`i ~n\"e\'o:`a\'e ^i\'a\"e`a~n`o`e \"i^i\"e\"y, \'ia ~n^i\"aadae`a`ua\'e \'i`e c`ad\"y\"a^i^a, \'i`e `o^i\'i^i^a `o.a. .

    \"A`e^o^oada\'i\"o`e`a\"e\"u\'i^ua \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y, ^e^i`o^id^u`i \"a^i\"eae\'i^u \'o\"a^i^a\"ea`o^a^id\"y`o\"u ^e`aae\"a^u\'e `ec ^aa^e`o^id^i^a ^a ^i`o\"aa\"e\"u\'i^i~n`o`e, `i^iae\'i^i \"i^i\"e\'o:`e`o\"u \"i\'o`oa`i `e~n^e\"eth:a\'i`e\"y ^i~n`o`a\"e\"u\'i^u~o ^aa^e`o^id^i^a. \"A\"e\"y ^i\"a\'i^id^i\"a\'i^i\'e ~nda\"a^u \"i^i\"e\'o:`e`i

    (9).

    \'Y`o^i ^i\'a^u:\'i^ua \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y ^a^i\"e\'i^i^a^i~a^i \"a^a`eaea\'i`e\"y. ^I\'i`e ^ic\'i`a:`ath`o, :`o^i ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a\'oa`o \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i`a\"y ^a^i\"e\'i`a, d`a~n\"id^i~n`od`a\'i\"yth`u`a\"y~n\"y ~n^i ~n^e^id^i~n`o\"uth

    (10).

    \"I^i\"iada:\'i^i~n`o\"u ~n^aa`o^i^a^i\'e ^a^i\"e\'i^u. `Ec \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^i\'e `oa^id`e`e ~n^aa`o`a ^a^u`oa^e`aa`o \'ia\"i^i~nda\"a~n`o^aa\'i\'i^i, :`o^i ~n^aa`o^i^a`a\"y

    ^a^i\"e\'i`a \"i^i\"iada:\'i`a. ^A~n\"y ~n^i^a^i^e\'o\"i\'i^i~n`o\"u c`a^e^i\'i^i^a \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'ia`o`ec`i`a `e \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^i\'e `e\'i\"a\'o^e\"o`e`e ^ed`a`o^e^ia `i`a`oa`i`a`o`e:a~n^e^ia ^a^ud`aaea\'i`ea ^e^i`o^id^i\'e c`a^e\"eth:`aa`o~n\"y ^a \'od`a^a\'ia\'i`e\"y~o `oa^id`e`e `I`a^e~n^aa\"e\"e`a, \"id`e^a^i\"a\"y`o ^e

    ^a^u^a^i\"a\'o, :`o^i `ec`ia\'ia\'i`ea ^a^i ^ada`ia\'i`e \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^i\'e \'i`a\"id\"yaea\'i\'i^i~n`o`e E ~n^i\"id^i^a^iae\"a`aa`o~n\"y \"i^i\"y^a\"ea\'i`ea`i \"iada`ia\'i\'i^i~a^i

    `i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^i~a^i \"i^i\"e\"y H, \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i\'i^i~a^i \"iad\"ia\'i\"a`e^e\'o\"e\"yd\'i^i ^e ^aa^e`o^id\'o E, `e ^i\'ad`a`o\'i^i. `O`a^e^ia \"iada`ia\'i\'i^ia \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^ia \"i^i\"ea d`a~n\"id^i~n`od`a\'i\"ya`o~n\"y ~n^i ~n^e^id^i~n`o\"uth ~n^aa`o`a ^a\"a^i\"e\"u \"e`e\'i`e`e,

    \"iad\"ia\'i\"a`e^e\'o\"e\"yd\'i^i\'e ^aa^e`o^id`a`i E `e H, ^i\'ad`ac\'o\"y \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^ua, ^a :`a~n`o\'i^i~n`o`e ~n^aa`o^i^a^ua, \'i^i\"e\'i^u. `O.^i. , `od`e ^aa^e`o^id`a E, H

    `o.a. \'y\"ea^e`od^i`i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i`a\"y ^a^i\"e\'i`a \"i^i\"iada:\'i`a.

    \"I^i\"e\"yd`ec`a\"o`e\"y ~n^aa`o`a.

    A~n`oa~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u\'e `e \"i^i\"e\"yd`ec^i^a`a\'i\'i^u\'e ~n^aa`o. A~n`oa~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u\'e ~n^aa`o a~n`o\"u ~n^i^a^i^e\'o\"i\'i^i~n`o\"u ~n^aa`o^i^a^u~o ^a^i\"e\'i ~n^i ^a~na`i`e

    ^a^ic`i^iae\'i^u`i`e \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i`e\"y`i`e ^e^i\"ea\'a`a\'i`e\'e, \'a^u~n`od^i `e \'aa~n\"i^id\"y\"a^i:\'i^i ~n`ia\'i\"yth`u`e`i`e \"ad\'o~a \"ad\'o~a`a.

    \"E`e\'ia\'e\'i^i-

    `e\"e`e \"i\"e^i~n^e^i\"i^i\"e\"yd`ec^i^a`a\'i\'i^u\'e ~n^aa`o \"ida\"a~n`o`a^a\"e\"ya`o ~n^i\'a^i\'e ~n^aa`o^i^a^ua ^a^i\"e\'i^u ~n ^i\"a\'i`e`i-a\"a`e\'i~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u`i \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i`ea`i

    ^e^i\"ea\'a`a\'i`e\'e ( a\"a`e\'i~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u\'e ^eda~n`o E `e H ), `o.a. ^a^i\"e\'i^u ~n ^a\"i^i\"e\'ia \'o\"i^id\"y\"a^i:a\'i\'i^u`i \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i`ea`i ^e^i\"ea\'a`a\'i`e\'e. ~N\'o`ua~n`o^a\'oth`o `e \'a^i\"eaa ~n\"e^iae\'i^ua ^a`e\"a^u \'o\"i^id\"y\"a^i:a\'i\'i^u~o ^e^i\"ea\'a`a\'i`e\'e, ^e^i`o^id^u`i

    ~n^i^i`o^aa`o~n`o^a\'oth`o `e\'i^ua `o`e\"i^u \"i^i\"e\"yd`ec`a\"o`e\'e, \'i`a\"id`e`iad ^ed\'o~a^i^a`a\"y `e\"e`e \'y\"e\"e`e\"i`o`e:a~n^e`a\"y \"i^i\"e\"yd`ec`a\"o`e`e, \"id`e ^e^i`o^id^u~o ^e^i\'ia\"o \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^i~a^i

    ( `e `i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^i~a^i) ^aa^e`o^id`a ^i\"i`e~n^u^a`aa`o ^ed\'o~a `e\"e`e \'y\"e\"e`e\"i~n ~n `oa`i `e\"e`e `e\'i^u`i \'y^e~n\"oa\'i`od`e~n`e`oa`o^i`i.

    x`a~n`o`e:\'i^i \"i^i\"e\"yd`ec^i^a`a\'i\'i^u\'e ~n^aa`o

    ~o`ad`a^e`oad`ec\'oa`o~n\"y `oa`i, :`o^i ^i\"a\'i^i `ec \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i`e\'e ^e^i\"ea\'a`a\'i`e\'e

    ^i^e`ac^u^a`aa`o~n\"y \"ida`e`i\'o`ua~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u`i, \'i^i \'ia `e~n^e\"eth:`e`oa\"e\"u\'i^u`i.

    D`a~n\"id^i~n`od`a\'ia\'i`ea ~n^aa`o`a :adac `o\'od`i`a\"e`e\'i. ^A^udaaea`i `ec ^ed`e~n`o`a\"e\"e`a `o\'od`i`a\"e`e\'i`a \"i\"e`a~n`o`e\'i^e\'o, \"i\"e^i~n^e^i~n`o\"u ^e^i`o^id^i\'e

    \"i`ad`a\"e\"ea\"e\"u\'i`a ^i\"a\'i^i`i\'o `ec ^i\"ida\"aa\"ea\'i\'i^u~o \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i`e\'e ^ed`e~n`o`a\"e\"e`e:a~n^e^i\'e daoa`o^e`e, \'i`ac^u^a`aa`i^i\'e ^i~n\"uth , `e \'i`a\"id`a^a`e`i ~n^e^a^ic\"u \"i\"e`a~n`o`e\'i^e\'o ~n^aa`o \"iad\"ia\'i\"a`e^e\'o\"e\"yd\'i^i ^e \"i^i^aad~o\'i^i~n`o`e \"i\"e`a~n`o`e\'i^e`e. ^I\"i^u`o \"i^i^e`ac^u^a`aa`o ,

    :`o^i `o\'od`i`a\"e`e\'i \"ida^ad`a`u`aa`o a~n`oa~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u\'e ~n^aa`o ^a \"e`e\'ia\'e\'i^i-\"i^i\"e\"yd`ec^i^a`a\'i\'i^u\'e, c`a\"aadae`e^a`a\"y \"i^i\"e^i^a`e\'i\'o a~a^i, ~n^i^i`o^aa`o~n`o^a\'oth`u\'oth `o^i\'e ~n\"e`a~a`ath`ua\'e \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^i~a^i ^aa^e`o^id`a, ^e^i`o^id`a\"y \"iad\"ia\'i\"a`e^e\'o\"e\"yd\'i`a ^e ^i~n`e

    ^ed`e~n`o`a\"e\"e`a, `o`a^e :`o^i c`a ^ed`e~n`o`a\"e\"e^i`i ^i^e`aae\'o`o~n\"y ^a^i\"e\'i^u, \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i`ea \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^i~a^i ^aa^e`o^id`a ^e^i`o^id^u~o \"i`ad`a\"e\"ea\"e\"u\'i^i ^i~n`e ^ed`e~n`o`a\"e\"e`a. ^Ed`e~n`o`a\"e\"e , `o.^i. , ^a^u\"aa\"e\"ya`o `ec ~n^aa`o`a ~n^i ^a~na^a^ic`i^iae\'i^u`i`e

    ^id`ea\'i`o`a\"o`e\"y`i`e A `o\'o :`a~n`o\"u, ^e^i`o^id`a\"y ~n^i^i`o^aa`o~n`o^a\'oa`o ^i\"a\'i^i`i\'o ^i\"ida\"aa\"ea\'i\'i^i`i\'o \'i`a\"id`a^a\"ea\'i`eth

    \"I^i\"e\"yd`ec`a\"o`e\"y \"id`e ^i`od`aaea\'i`e`e `e \"ida\"e^i`i\"ea\'i`e`e ~n^aa`o`a \'i`a ~ad`a\'i`e\"oa \"a^a\'o~o \"a`e\'y\"ea^e`od`e^e^i^a. ss^a\"ea\'i`ea \"i^i\"e\"yd`ec`a\"o`e`e ~n^aa`o`a ,

    `o.a. ^a^u\"aa\"ea\'i`e\"y ~n^aa`o^i^a^u~o ^a^i\"e\'i ~n ^i\"ida\"aa\"ea\'i\'i^i\'e ^id`ea\'i`o`a\"o`ea\'e \'y\"ea^e`od`e:a~n^e^i~a^i ( `e `i`a~a\'i`e`o\'i^i~a^i ) ^aa^e`o^id`a `e`iaa`o `ia~n`o^i `e \"id`e ^i`od`aaea\'i`e`e `e\"e`e \"ida\"e^i`i\"ea\'i`e`e ~n^aa`o`a \'i`a ~ad`a\'i`e\"oa \"a^a\'o~o `ec^i`od^i\"i\'...

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