Философские взгляды Вольтера

    Дисциплина: Философия
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Философские взгляды Вольтера

    ~A^I~N\'O\"A`AD~N`O^AA\'I\'I`Ass ^O`E\'I`A\'I~N^I^A`Ass `A^E`A\"AA`I`Ess

    \"ID`E \"ID`A^A`E`OA\"E\"U~N`O^AA D^I~N~N`E\'E~N^E^I\'E ^OA\"AAD`A\"O`E`E

    ^E`A^OA\"AD`A ^O`E\"E^I~N^I^O`E`E

    DA^OAD`A`O

    ^O`E\"E^I~N^I^A~N^E`EA ^AC~A\"Ess\"A^U ^A^I\"E\"U`OAD`A

    ^A^u\"i^i\"e\'i`e\"e

    : ~n`o\'o\"aa\'i`o

    ^E^id\'iaa^a `A\"ea^e~na\'e, ^A`I2_1

    \"Ida\"i^i\"a^i^a`a`oa\"e\"u

    ^E\"e`e`i^i^a `A\'i`a`o^i\"e`e\'e ss^e^i^a\"ea^a`e:

    `I^I~N^E^A`A

    1994

    \"I\"E`A\'I

    D`A\'A^I`O^U

    1. ^A^aa\"aa\'i`ea

    2. x`a~n`o\"u 1. ^I`o\'i^ioa\'i`ea ^A^i\"e\"u`oad`a ^e da\"e`e~a`e`e `e \'A^i~a\'o

    3. x`a~n`o\"u 2. ^I~n\'i^i^a\'i^ua \"i^i\"e^iaea\'i`e\"y ^o`e\"e^i~n^i^o`e`e ^A^i\"e\"u`oad`a

    4. C`a^e\"eth:a\'i`ea

    ^A^aa\"aa\'i`ea

    ^Od`a\'i~n\'o`a `I`ad`e ^A^i\"e\"u`oad ^i`o\'i^i~n`e`o~n\"y ^e ^a`e\"a\'ia\'eo`e`i `i^u~n\"e`e`oa\"e\"y`i ^od`a\'i\"o\'oc~n^e^i~a^i \"id^i~n^aa`ua\'i`e\"y.`O^a^id:a~n`o^a^i ^A^i\"e\"u`oad`a \'i`a~n`o^i\"e\"u^e^i \"i^i\"e\'i^i ^i`od`aae`a\"e^i ^i~n\'i^i^a\'i^ua \'o~n`oda`i\"ea\'i`e\"y ^ada`ia\'i`e, :`o^i ^aa~n\"u 18-^u\'e ^aa^e

    ~n`o`a\"e`e ^i`o^iae\"aa~n`o^a\"e\"y`o\"u ~n ^A^i\"e\"u`oad^i`i. \"^I\'i \'a^u\"e \'a^i\"e\"uoa, :a`i :a\"e^i^aa^e. ^I\'i \'a^u\"e ^aa^e^i`i\", - ~n^e`ac`a\"e ^i \'i,`i ^A`e^e`o^id ~Ath~a^i.

    ^A^i\"e\"u`oad ^i^e`ac`a\"e ^i~ad^i`i\'i^ia ^a\"e`e\"y\'i`ea \'i`a \"id^i\'i`e^e\'i^i^aa\'i`ea ^od`a\'i\"o\'oc~n^e^i~a^i \"id^i~n^aa`ua\'i`e\"y ^a D^i~n~n`eth ^a ^e^i\'i\"oa 18-~a^i ^aa^e`a. `E\'i`oada~n\'i^i `e `o^i, :`o^i ^i\'i \'a^u\"e ^a ~n`a`i^i\'e ~a\'o`ua \"i^i\"e`e`o`e:a~n^e`e~o \"id^i\"oa~n~n^i^a ^a A^ad^i\"ia `e

    ^a,\"e \"iada\"i`e~n^e\'o ~n^i `i\'i^i~a`e`i`e ^aa\'i\"oa\'i^i~n\'i^u`i`e ^i~n^i\'a`a`i`e, `oa`i ~n`a`i^u`i ^i^e`ac^u^a`a\"y ^i\"ida\"aa\"e,\'i\'i^ia ^a\"e`e\"y\'i`ea \'i`a \"i^i\"e`e`o`e^e\'o.

    ^A^i\"e\"u`oad \'a^u\"e \'ia `o^i\"e\"u^e^i ^o`e\"e^i~n^i^o^i`i, ^i\"a\'i`a^e^i `e`ia\'i\'i^i a~a^i ^o`e\"e^i~n^i^a~n^e`ea ^ac~a\"e\"y\"a^u \"ida\"a~n`o`a^a\"e\"yth`o \'a^i\"e\"uo^i\'e `e\'i`oada~n. \'Y`o^i ~n^a\"yc`a\'i^i \'ia `o^i\"e\"u^e^i ~n `oa`i, :`o^i ^i\'i`e `e`ia\"e`e ^i~ad^i`i\'i^ia ^a\"e`e\"y\'i`ea \'i`a

    \"ida`oa\'i\"a^i^a`a^ao`e~o \'i`a \"\"id^i~n^aa`u,\'i\'i^i~n`o\"u `i^i\'i`ad~o^i^a `e `e~o \"id`e\'a\"e`eae,\'i\'i^u~o\", \'i^i `e~n `oa`i, :`o^i ^A^i\"e\"u`oad \'i`a~o^i\"a`e\"e ~n^a^ith \"i^i\"a\"e`e\'i\'i\'oth `a\'o\"a`e`o^id`eth ^a ~nda\"aa \"id^i~ada~n~n`e^a\'i^i\'e ^i\'a`ua~n`o^aa\'i\'i^i~n`o`e `o^i~a^i ^ada`ia\'i`e.

    x`a~n`o\"u 1.

    ^A`aae\'i^ia `ia~n`o^i ^a ^o`e\"e^i~n^i^o`e`e ^A^i\"e\"u`oad`a c`a\'i`e`i`aa`o a~a^i ^i`o\'i^ioa\'i`ea ^e da\"e`e~a`e`e `e ^e \'a^i~a\'o. ^O^id`i`a\"e\"u\'i^i ^A^i\"e\"u`oad`a `i^iae\'i^i ^i`o\'ia~n`o`e ^e \"aa`e~n`o`a`i, `o`a^e ^e`a^e ^i\'i \"i`e~n`a\"e, :`o^i ^aad`e`o ^a \'a^i~a`a, \'i^i \"id`e \'y`o^i`i \'a^i~a

    d`a~n~n`i`a`od`e^a`a\"e~n\"y `o^i\"e\"u^e^i ^e`a^e d`ac\'o`i, ~n^e^i\'i~n`od\'o`ed^i^a`a^ao`e\'e \"oa\"ea~n^i^i\'ad`ac\'i\'oth “`i`ao`e\'i\'o \"id`ed^i\"a^u” `e \"a`a^ao`e\'e a\'e c`a^e^i\'i^u `e \"a^a`eaea\'i`ea. \'A^i~a \'ia \"i\'o~n^e`aa`o ^a ~o^i\"a `ia~o`a\'i`ec`i^u \"aa\"y`oa\"e\"u\'i^i~n`o`e `i`ed`a \"i^i~n`o^i\"y\'i\'i^i. “\'A^i~a

    ^i\"a\'i`aae\"a^u \"i^i^aa\"ea\"e, ^A~na\"ea\'i\'i`a\"y aea \"i^i\"a:`e\'i\"ya`o~n\"y ^aa:\'i^i.” ^A^i\"e\"u`oad ^i\"ida\"aa\"e\"ya`o \'a^i~a`a ^e`a^e “\'ia^i\'a~o^i\"a`e`i^ia \'a^u`o`ea, ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a\'oth`uaa ~n`a`i^i \"i^i ~na\'aa, ^a ~n`e\"e\'o ~n^a^ia\'e d`ac\'o`i\'i^i\'e, \'a\"e`a~a^i\'e `e `i^i~a\'o`ua~n`o^aa\'i\'i^i\'e \"id`ed^i`e\"a^u,

    d`ac\'o`i, ^a^i `i\'i^i~a^i d`ac \"ida^a^i~n~o^i\"a\"y`u`e\'e \'i`a~n, `e\'a^i ^i\'i ~n^i^aado`aa`o ^aa`u`e, ^e^i`o^id^ua a\"a^a`a \"e`e `i^u `i^iaea`i \"i^i\'i\"y`o\"u.” ~O^i`o\"y ^A^i\"e\"u`oad `e \"i`eoa`o, :`o^i ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a^i^a`a\'i`ea \'a^i~a`a \'ia `oda\'a\'oa`o \"a^i^e`ac`a`oa\"e\"u~n`o^a (“d`ac\'o`i ^a^u\'i\'oae\"a`aa`o

    \'i`a~n a~a^i \"id`ec\'i`a`o\"u `e\"e`eo\"u \'aac\'o`i`ea ^i`odao`e`o~n\"y ^e a~a^i ^i\"ida\"aa\"ea\'i`eth”), ~n`a`i ^i\'i ^a~n, aea \"i^u`o`aa`o~n\"y `e~o \"id`e^aa~n`o`e. ^A^i\"e\"u`oad ~n:`e`o`aa`o, :`o^i `a\'a~n\'od\"a\'i^i, a~n\"e`e “^a~n, - \"a^a`eaea\'i`ea, \"i^id\"y\"a^i^e, ae`ec\'i\"u - ^i\'ad`ac^i^a`a\"e`a~n\"u

    ~n`a`i`a ~n^i\'a^i\'e, ^a\'ia ^e`a^e^i~a^i \'a^u `o^i \'i`e \'a^u\"e^i c`a`i^u~n\"e`a”, :`o^i\'a^u “^i\"a\'i^i \"e`eo\"u \"a^a`eaea\'i`ea ~n^ic\"a`a\"e^i d`ac\'o`i”, ~n\"ea\"a^i^a`a`oa\"e\"u\'i^i \'A^i~a a~n`o\"u. “`I^u d`ac\'o`i\'i^u, c\'i`a:`e`o ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a\'oa`o `e ^a^u~no`e\'e d`ac\'o`i. `I^u~n\"e`e \'ia \"id`e~n\'o`u`e

    `i`a`oad`e`e ^a^i^i\'a`ua, c\'i`a:`e`o :a\"e^i^aa^e \"i^i\"e\'o:`e\"e \'y`o`e ~n\"i^i~n^i\'a\'i^i~n`o`e ^i`o \'a^i~a`a.”

    \'I^i :a`i \"a`a\"e\"uoa `e\"a,`o ^A^i\"e\"u`oad ^a \"i^i\"a^i\'a\'i^u~o d`a~n~n\'oae\"aa\'i`e\"y~o, `oa`i \'a^i\"e\"uoa `i^iae\'i^i \'i`a\'e`o`e ^a \'i`e~o \"id^i`o`e^a^ida:`e\'e. \'I`a\"id`e`iad, ~n\'i`a:`a\"e`a ^i\'i ~a^i^a^id`e`o, :`o^i \'A^i~a ~n^ic\"a`a\"e ^a~n,, ^a `o^i`i :`e~n\"ea `e `i`a`oad`eth, `a :\'o`o\"u

    \"a`a\"e\"uoa \'oaea \"i`eoa`o, :`o^i “\'A^i~a `e `i`a`oad`e\"y ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a\'oth`o ^a ~n`e\"e\'o ^aa`ua\'e.” ^A^i^i\'a`ua, :a`i \'a^i\"e\"uoa \"i`eoa`o ^A^i\"e\"u`oad ^i \'a^i~aa, `oa`i \'a^i\"e\"uoa ^aad^u `e `ia\'i\"uoa `ad~a\'o`ia\'i`o^i^a: “...\"a`a^a`a\'e`oa \"i^i^e\"e^i\'i\"y`o\"u~n\"y \'A^i~a\'o, \'ia ~n`oda`i\"y~n\"u

    \"id^i\'i`e^e\'i\'o`o\"u ^a^i `id`a^e a~a^i `o`a`e\'i~n`o^a.” ^A^i\"e\"u`oad \"i`eoa`o, :`o^i ^i\'i ~n`a`i \'a\'o\"aa`o “\"i^i^e\"e^i\'i\"y`o\"u~n\"y a`i\'o \"i^i^e`a ae`e^a, \'ia \"a^i^aad\"y\"y \'i`e^e`a^e^i\'e o^e^i\"ea `e \'ia \'o~n`oda`i\"e\"y\"y \"i^i\"e,`o ~n^a^ia~a^i \'o`i`a ^a \"ida\"aa\"e^u, ^e^i`e~o \'ia ~n\"i^i~n^i\'aa\'i

    \"a^i~n`o`e:\"u \'i`e ^i\"a`e\'i ~n`iad`o\'i^u\'e.” \'A^i\"e\"uo`e\'i~n`o^a^i \"a^i^a^i\"a^i^a ^A^i\"e\"u`oad`a ^a \"i^i\"e\"uc\'o ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a^i^a`a\'i`e\"y \'A^i~a`a \'ia `i^i~a\'o`o \'a^u`o\"u \"id`e\'i\"y`o^u ^a^i ^a\'i`e`i`a\'i`ea `ec-c`a ~n^a^ia\'e \"id^i`o`e^a^ida:`e^a^i~n`o`e.

    ^A^i\"e\"u`oad ~n:`e`o`aa`o, :`o^i \'A^i~a - “a\"a`e\'i~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u\'e, ^e`o^i `i^i~a\'o`ua~n`o^aa\'ia\'i, `e\'a^i \'y`o^i ^i\'i ^a~na ~n^ic\"a`a\"e, \'i^i \'ia ^a ~n^aad~o `iada `i^i~a\'o`ua~n`o^aa\'ia\'i”, `o`a^e ^e`a^e “^e`aae\"a^ia ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a^i ^i~ad`a\'i`e:a\'i^i ~n^a^ia\'e \"id`ed^i\"a^i\'e” `e

    “~n\'o`ua~n`o^a\'oth`o ^aa`u`e, ^e^i`e`i ^aad~o^i^a\'i^u\'e `e\'i`oa\"e\"ea^e`o \'ia ^a ~n`e\"e`a~o ^a^i~n\"ida\"i\"y`o~n`o^a^i^a`a`o\"u, \'i`a\"id`e`iad, ^a^i~n\"ida\"i\"y`o~n`o^a^i^a`a`o\"u `o^i`i\'o, :`o^i\'a^u \"id^io\"e^ia \'ia ~n\'o`ua~n`o^a^i^a`a\"e^i, :`o^i\'a^u \'i`a~n`o^i\"y`uaa \'ia \'a^u\"e^i \"i^i\"a^aadaea\'i^i \"i^i~n`o^i\"y\'i\'i^i\'e

    `oa^e\'o:a~n`o`e. :`o^i\'a^u \'a\'o\"a\'o`uaa \'ia ^a^u`oa^e`a\"e^i `ec \'i`a~n`o^i\"y`ua~a^i.” ^Aad~o^i^a\'i^ia \'a^u`o`ea “^a~n, ~n\"aa\"e`a\"e^i ^a ~n`e\"e\'o \'ia^i\'a~o^i\"a`e`i^i~n`o`e, `e\'a^i, a~n\"e`e \'a^u a~a^i `o^a^ida\'i`e\"y \'ia \'a^u\"e`e \'a^u \'ia^i\'a~o^i\"a`e`i^u, ^i\'i`e \'a^u\"e`e \'a^u \'aa~n\"i^i\"eac\'i^u.” \'I^i

    \'y`o`a \'ia^i\'a~o^i\"a`e`i^i~n`o\"u \'ia \"e`eo`aa`o a~a^i ^a^i\"e`e `e ~n^a^i\'a^i\"a^u, \"i^i`o^i`i\'o :`o^i ~n^a^i\'a^i\"a`a - \'y`o^i ^a^ic`i^iae\'i^i~n`o\"u \"aa\'e~n`o^a^i^a`a`o\"u, `a \'A^i~a - ^i:a\'i\"u `i^i~a\'o`ua~n`o^aa\'ia\'i `e \"i^i\'y`o^i`i\'o ~n`a`i^u\'e ~n^a^i\'a^i\"a\'i^u\'e. `O`a^e`e`i ^i\'ad`ac^i`i, \"i^i ^A^i\"e\"u`oad\'o -

    \'A^i~a \'ia ^a~na`i^i~a\'o`u`e\'e, `a \"id^i~n`o^i \"id^i~n`o^i ~n`a`i^u\'e `i^i~a\'o`ua~n`o^aa\'i\'i^u\'e; \'ia `a\'a~n^i\"eth`o\'i^i, `a ~n`a`i^u\'e ~n^a^i\'a^i\"a\'i^u\'e.

    `O`a^e^i^a`a ^a^i\"e\"u`oad^i^a~n^e`a\"y ^e^i\'i\"oa\"i\"o`e\"y \'A^i~a`a, `e a~n\"e`e ~n\'o\"a`e`o\"u \"i^i \'ia\'e ^i ^ac~a\"e\"y\"a`a~o ^o`e\"e^i~n^i^o`a, `o^i a~a^i `i^iae\'i^i ^i`o\'ia~n`o`e ^e \"aa`e~n`o`a`i. \'I^i \"aa`ec`i ^A^i\"e\"u`oad`a a~n`o\"u \"i^i ~n\'o`o`e ~n^a^ia\'e c`a`i`a~n^e`ed^i^a`a\'i\'i^u\'e `a`oa`ec`i `e

    `i`a`oad`e`a\"e`ec`i, `o`a^e ^e`a^e, \"i^i-`i^ia`i\'o, \'A^i~a ^A^i\"e\"u`oad\'o \'i\'oaea\'i, :`o^i\'a^u ae`e`o\"u ^a `i`eda ~n ~n`a`i`e`i ~n^i\'a^i\'e `e `e`ia`o\"u ^i`o\"id`a^a\'i\'oth `o^i:^...

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