Отношения между правительствами и международными корпорациями (Relations between national governments and multinational enterprises)Дисциплина: Экономика
Тип работы: Реферат
Тема: Отношения между правительствами и международными корпорациями (Relations between national governments and multinational enterprises)
From my point of view we should begin
the discussion from the description of international trade. I like the description given in one of the books. Authors are saying that international trade
“the exchange of products between countries”
Although I like this explanation of international trade I think it is not full enough.
From my point of view we must change the word products into the word
something. Because when we say products we usually think about something that is materially however states can change not only the materially stuff it can also
trade in valuables like knowledge ( for example). Also I have to say that for me both states in the person of government and companies are actually the same. Because all in all
their main target is their own prosperity.
So let’s go to discuss about the relations between National Governments in multinational enterprises. After I red some articles I came to a conclusion that this relations are
always very different but usually they are good if both companies and governments have one common aim. Now it is an era of euphemisms language and some things more likely not to be
told. In the same time if we take the book written in 1962 by John S. Ewing and Frank MEISSNER in the preface we can read very interesting thing
“American businessmen invest more capital abroad than entrepreneurs of any other country: the
U.S government pours great amounts of taxpayers’ money into foreign countries to help friendly nations advance economically and socially, and to strengthen their
defenses against the forces of communism”2. Here we can see the situation when there is only one purpose that purse companies and government is to defend themselves against another
On the other hand I can show you an example, when because of different purposes the company was destroyed by a state. Everybody in Europe now a days knows about conflict in
Russia between oil company YKOS and the Russian government. Of course somebody can say that YKOS actually is not real multinational enterprise however I will not agree with it because
though the main % of safety stock was in the hands of Russian citizen there were other keepers from different part of the world including UKSA ( U.K USA). As I already sad everybody
know about the conflict and only few know what was happening in reality. In early 90 this company was privatized by Mikhail
Hodorkowsky . But the way it was privatized was not really legal.( it is very wide
question so I will not discuss it in my work).
And of course state helped him to do it. Everything was O.K until Mikhail hasn’t wanted to brake the rules. The thing is that though we do not have such strong
legal laws as in Europe and America we’ve got a lot of illegal rules that are necessary to obey. The first one – you should not try to go
against authorities the second- you can not change the rules by your own wish. Actually there are 2 versions why everything has started .The firs one is that he
wanted to become a President, the second is that he wanted to sell the company to foreign people. And nothing is bad in this deal except one thing. In 1990’s The company was bought
for only 6.000.000 but the real price was something about 7.000.000. And this difference was like a debt on the owner and that’s how the state could control him.
In the case he sales it the buyers
will be we can translate it like conscientious buyers. It means that they buy this company legally and have no responsibility with the state so the government will
lose the opportunity to control the company and to get money from it. As a result YKOS is a state’s company now . I think it is very good example what relations between state and
company can be and how they can change. Because in the beginning
Hodorkowsky was in brilliant relations with the government ,and authorities.
But it is unusual situation, usually relations are different from the relation I have just described.
Now days we can see the increasing of globalization. In Europe there are no borders anymore the political situation is different ,companies are truing to assimilate new
countries. And governments can
not stay a side . The have got 2 ways. The first one is the way of protectionism. The second one is the way of free trade. Both of them have advantages and
“international trade activity now affects domestic policy more than ever. ….. Governments can not be expected, for the sake of theoretical ideal of “free trade” to sit back and
watch the effects of deindustrialization on their countries”3. Some followers of the ”free trade” theory might say
that formation of some countries with strong
economy today was taken place in the conditions of “free trade market. And this fact will be correct but from my point of view it exact reason why now a days they
do not want to apply this practice anymore. As we’ve already decided that there are not so many differences between state and the company, and the main target of a state is to protect
itself and be reach, we can make the conclusion that protectionism is an instrument used by state to protect it’s economical safety and helps their own producers. However from the
other point of view , protectionism may lead to some problems. I truly believe that company may work only when it compete with the others
because then it has to innovate their production, to seek for new marketing ideas
e.t.c But in the conditions of protectionism very often they loose every wish to do it. And actually I can understand them. Why do you need to spend your money for
innovation if even without it you can have a big profit, people will buy your product anyway. The second problem with protectionism is the more limitation you make the more limitation
made against you. ( only in case when the sides are similar in their opportunities). So you are not allowed to export as many products as you wanted to.
On the other hand “free trade” gives the opportunity of wealth competition in market. And sometimes it might be very good for economical condition but bad for security “ more
often, economic security and national security were seen as competing with each other”3-1.
So we can see that it is not simple question and not only because there are a lot of types of protectionism but also because it touches not only economical but also political
fields. As for me, I think that all this instruments may be used but only after deep researching of situation.
At the end I would like to say that a government has got a huge possibility to control business it has a lot of instruments either to draw multinational
enterprises or to push of by giving them either good advantages or bad. However if a state wants to be wealthy and strong it needs business because business means investments into
state’s economy. Sometimes some not very strong governments might be under the control of big multinational but anyway, they will be under the control of strong government...