Правозащитная деятельность ООН

    Дисциплина: Юриспруденция
    Тип работы: Курсовая
    Тема: Правозащитная деятельность ООН

    INTERNATIONAL SLAVONIC UNIVERSITY
    (KHARKOV)
    DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS AND BUSINESS
    HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION AND PROTECTION. UNO ACTIVITY .
    Essay of the second year student
    Darya Ivanova
    Tutor - N. Dolinina
    KHARKOV
    1996
    CONTENTS
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. UNO ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RIGHTS SPHERE
    3. THE INTERNATIONAL GEAR OF PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
    4. HUMAN RIGHTS IN UKRAINE
    5. POLITICAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN UKRAINE
    6. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS
    7. FREEDOM OF VOICE
    8. CONCLUSIONS
    9. RESUME
    INTRODUCTION
    In the period after acceptance of the Declaration of State
    Independence in Ukraine was considerably made more active state
    and political activity in the sphere of human rights. A
    parlamentary committee on human rights is created, there is
    accepted a number of acts, aimed at strenghtening of legal
    status of citizens, legal base of protection of human rights and
    freedom is updated as a whole.
    A set of nation-wide, regional and local right-defence
    organizations were registered, international contacts with
    interstate and non-government organizations are adjusting. These
    organizations have devoted their activity to the protection of
    the person in today\'s difficult, rigid and even severe world.
    Many international pacts, agreements and conventions on human
    rights and freedoms were signed. There was considerably improved
    the integration of Ukraine in the international right-defence
    gear, real steps to increase the warranties of fulfillment of
    international obligations in human rights sphere were made.
    Much more forums are conducted with the dominant idea of
    protection of Ukrainian citizen\'s and foreigner\'s (which are on
    the territory of Ukraine) rights and freedoms.
    New magazines on human rights are established, lectures are
    read, special and optonal cources on human rights are organized,
    educational programs are distributed. Much attention is paid to
    the educational aspect of the problem. National and
    international conferences and symposiums, \"round tables\" and
    readings on urgent problems of development of institute of human
    rights and protection of political, social and economic rights,
    freedoms and legal interests of the person are carried out.
    In other words \"the requirement of all-round maintenance of
    human rights and freedoms\" has become not simply a line of
    preamble of the Declaration of State Independence of Ukraine but
    the program of state and political activity of citizens of
    Ukraine and foreigners, which permanently or temporary stay in
    our country.
    But it will be an error to overestimate the first shifts in the
    right-defence sphere. Despite all the achievements in this
    sphere the situation of the person in Ukraine remains hard and
    unprotected. There are a lot of reasons and there is a great
    number of explanations of this fact.
    It is possible to refer to the absence of a legal state with
    precisely distributed functions of legislative, executive and
    judicial powers. Frankly speaking, these branches are imperfect
    because of the political traditions in all the contries of the
    former USSR . For example, the judicial power continues to act
    with the main idea of punishment, instead of protection of
    rights and freedoms of citizens.
    Frequently jealous relations between right-defence organizations
    make public right defence movement weak. It is not so influental
    and effective as should be.
    The habit to make acts in the field of human rights
    propagandistic by character has overload them by political,
    moral or simply ideological admonitions. As it frequently
    happens it is heavy to separate from them really legal
    statements, it sometimes makes impossible protection of rights,
    honour and interests of the person.
    As a rule there remains inconsistency of national legal acts with
    international pacts and conventions on human rights. The principle
    of priority of international norms in the matters of human rights
    is recognized by the law, but is not applied or it is applying
    very seldom in practice.
    We have a selective approach to recognition of international
    obligations in the sphere of protection of rights, that is not
    allowed in practice of other states. Just due to such approach
    we did not ratify, have not joined, have not accepted or not
    approved a significant number of important international pacts,
    agreements, conventions.
    The plenty of ratified by Ukraine international pacts does not act
    concerning our state because we have used the stipulated in them
    gear of realization in a very specific way. In the international
    contractual activity of Ukraine the negative tendency to sign
    international pacts on human rights without output of domestic
    gear of their realization was expanded.
    The practice not to publish the text of ratified documents and
    conventions in the sphere of human rights or to publish by a
    small edition or with a 5-10 year delay has become rather
    widespread.
    It is possible to consider natural the inconsistency of the
    Ukrainian legislation with international obligations of state.
    Practically only in the last years the authority of international
    pacts on human rights has become admitted by our officials.
    Some integral rights of the person are absolutly unknown to our
    state or are admitted only on the paper.
    It is necessary to achieve the real, guaranteed maintenance of
    such integral rights and freedoms as: right to life, right to
    freedom of opinions and the free manifestation of them, right to
    ideological (with exception of the ideological movements,
    forbidden by modern international legislation), religious,
    cultural freedom, right to participation in political life and
    management, right to freedom of print, to reception and
    distribution of information, right to strike, right to healthy
    environment, right to an acceptable living standard, necessary
    for health support, well-being, honour, right to access
    depending on abilities and professional training to any posts in
    state bodies, establishments, organizations, right to protect
    rights and freedoms according to the legislation, right to
    property indemnification of moral damage, caused by illegal
    actions of state bodies, by officials and other persons, right
    to leave the country and to return to it, right to appeal to the
    court in the case of illegal arrest, detention, refuse in the
    opening or closing of a criminal case, right of citizens to free
    movement and to choose a place of residing in the country, right
    to property indemnification in case of illegal detention,
    arrest, conviction, illegal dismissal from a post, illegal
    location in mental establishments, etc.
    The named rights are usual for the world practice. We have to
    lead the legislation of Ukraine to conformity with international
    standards in the sphere of human rights but this step will not
    give necessary results without solution of a problem how to
    increase literacy of the population in the sphere of
    international standards. Th...

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