Храмы Санкт-Петербурга

    Дисциплина: Разное
    Тип работы: Курсовая
    Тема: Храмы Санкт-Петербурга

    Министерство образования и науки
    Российской Федерации
    Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Инженерно-экономический
    Университет
    Факультет туризма и гостиничного хозяйства
    Кафедра профессионального иностранного языка и межкультурных коммуникаций в туризме
    Курсовая работа
    Тема: Храмы Санкт-Петербурга
    Выполнил: студент Кошелев Глеб Александрович
    Курс - 2, группа 5131
    Руководитель:
    т.пр. Ляпакина Е.В.
    Санкт-Петербург
    2004 г
    Content
    1. Introduction
    2. Buddhist Temple
    3. The Mosque
    4. Armenian Church
    5. Lutheran Church
    6. Roman-Catholic Church
    7. Znamensky Orthodox
    Church
    8. Greek Church
    9. The Church of Theophany on Gutuevsky Island
    10. Conclusion
    11. Glossary
    12. Bibliography
    Introduction.
    Saint-Petersburg is a World famous city. It is famous for its history - “City of three revolutions”, for white nights,
    drawbridges, for its architecture. Temples of Saint-Petersburg play a great role
    both in history and architecture. One of the first buildings in the city was Peter and Paul Cathedral. Most of Romanovs were buried here. After this,
    Saint-Petersburg became the centre of Temple building.
    The Saint-Petersburg temples represent the city as a multicultural one and as the sample of tolerance. People of great
    number of nationalities and religions lived here since its foundation.
    The city changed greatly in the XX century. Because of revolution and following Soviet rule, and also Grand Patriotic
    War, about thrty churches have been destroyed, many were reconstructed. The main purpose of my work is to restore the image of Saint-Petersburg of the beginning of the XX century. The
    second main purpose is to represent the way of life in the city, the attitude to churches, to religion. The events that lead to the ideas of building a church or a temple seem
    interesting as well. And the last, but not the least, - to get acquainted with pieces of architectural art, to show the traditions of temple building in Saint-Petersburg. Different
    architectural styles are represented in this work.
    The temples below are not the most famous ones in Saint-Petersburg. But they have very reach history and they are in the
    shade of World famous St. Isaac’s Cathedral, Church of Resurection, Peter and Paul Cathedral. The temples below are worth one’s attention.
    The Buddist Temple
    There is a tall building on 91, Primorsky prospect. It attracts attention to its proportions and symbolism. It impresses with its unusual forms, walls
    like fortress ones, misterious symbols on the Eastern facade. The grey monolith of its Nothern wall towers the three-storeyed rectangular building. The Southern facade is decorated
    with a four-pillared portico. Granite facing, glazed bricks and guilded components af decoration forms the unique image of the building. It combines the elegant beauty of European
    modern style and severe beauty of Tibet architecture. This is the Buddist Temple.
    The history of constructing the Temple in Saint-Petersburg is very complicated.
    On March, 16 in 1909 Agvan Dorghiev bought a ground area in “Old Village” in order to erect there the Temple. But many organizations like “The Union of
    Russian People”, bureaucrats were against of it. That goes without saying, The Russian Orthodox Church was against too. But Dorghiev showed all his diplomatic skills, and on the 30st
    of September, 1909 Nicolas II allowed the building of First Buddist Temple in Saint-Petersburg. At the end of April the building started.
    The works were produced under control of a special building comitee, consisting of the academicians V.V. Radlov, S.F.
    Oldenburg, prince A.A. Ukhtomsky, researches of the Far East V.L. Kotvich, A.D. Rudnev, F.I. Scherbatsky, painters N.K. Rerikh, V.P. Shnayder.
    The author of the very first project was an engeneer N.M. Berezovsky. Then G.V. Baranovsky continued Berezovsky’s work .
    Agvan Dorghiev participated in this, as well.
    The building works started under supervision of Baranovsky and they were procuced very fast. In spite of it , they turned out to be organized
    unsucsessfully, because the organizers had poor experience of such kind of work. Because of financial problems, Dorzhiev was to employ very poor bricklayers from Kostroma. They did
    not even know, what they were doing. Construction materials were stolen frequently. Besides, some bills from purveyor organizations were not paid in time. It all led to conflict
    between the architect Baranovsky and Building Comitee. As a result, Baranovsky left this project, and N.K. Rerikh, who projected a wooden Buddist Temple in Irkutsk uyezd, was
    invited.
    The only Temple in Russia that is equal to the samples of Tibet canon is Saint-Petersburg Temple. The building of the
    temple is intended for daily services, and at the same time, it is a place where lamas gather together and hold the lessons.
    The main entrance opens on the South. In the Southern part of dugan there is the principle room for clergy (Large Hall for Te Deum), that is illuminated
    through overhead floor (“Sun flashlighter”). The Nothern part of Dugan - Gonkan is considered to be the most sacred - here is the altar with sculpture of Big Buddha. The throne of the
    principal lama is located opposite the altar. The seats for common lamas are installed between the columns, along the Temple. All the elements of the Buddist symbolysm were made in
    Tibet and fifted to Petrograd Temple in 1915.
    One can see elements of European architecture, used here. The Eastern portotypes were essentially reorientated in the
    European modern style. It is the lay-out of the hall and stairwell. Central heating was installed in the Southern part of the Temple because of the peculiarities of Nothern climate.
    Nothern modern style was the reason to choose different sorts of coarsely-splitted granite, facing brick, glazed tile for coating the building. It gave classical Petersburg look.
    High-coloured stained-glass windows of plafond, the barrier of light-embrasure, adorned with the symbols of Buddism, and also high-coloured tile on the floor is also impact
    of modern style.
    A low spire (that has the same function as the at the Orthodox Church) from guilded copper - Ganchzhirra (full of
    treasure, the Sanscrit language) looks like a vase. It was traditionnaly installed on the roof of the Gonkan. In 1939 Ganchzhirra was dismantled. The figures of “Victorious Stndard”
    were installed at the corners of the roofs. During the consecration they were filled-in with the sacred texts. The roof of the portico was adorned with guilded eight-radius “Weel of
    Studies” and two deers - symbols of the first Buddha’s sermon. Deer and doe symbolyze beings of both sexes, who is heeding to the Teaching “with clean heart of gentle deers”. Guilded
    disks and magic mirrors were installed in the frieze of the Temple in order to frighten the evil forces away.
    The construction finished in 1913, and on the 21st of Febraury the first service, devoted to three hundred years Jubilee
    of Romanovs family...

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