Темы для экзамена в Финансовой академии, 1 курс

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    Тип работы: Шпаргалки
    Тема: Темы для экзамена в Финансовой академии, 1 курс

    №1. Economic Goods and Services.
    People begin to learn about economics when they are still very young. At first they find that they want a lot of but they couldn’t bye everything. There is a big gap between
    what they want and what they can have.
    Than they discover that there are thousands of things they or their parents could buy. Gradually, they settle into two major economic roles: consumer and producer.
    Consumer buy goods and services for personal use, not for resale. Consumer goods are products, such as food, clothing, and cars, that satisfy people\'s economic needs or wants.
    Some consumer goods, such as food, do not last a long time. It’s perishable goods. Other goods, such as cars or VCRs, last longer. Services are actions , such as haircutting, cleaning
    or teaching. Services are used up at the time they are provided.
    A producer makes the goods or provides the services that consumers use.
    In order to produce something, a person must first have right resources. Resources are the materials from which goods and services are made. There are three kinds of resources:
    human (people), natural (raw materials), and capital resources (capital, or the money or property). No economy has an unlimited supply of resources. In other words , there is a
    scarcity of resources.
    The basic economic questions individuals and nations face are: What goods and services will be produced? How will they be produced ? Who will get them ? How much will be
    produced for now and how much for the future? The answers to the questions depend on a country\'s human, natural, and capital resources. Each country will answer 4 questions in a
    different way.
    №2. Opportunity costs. Tradeoffs.
    All production involves a cost. This cost is not counted simply in terms of money but also in terms of resources used. In building a bridge, for example, the real costs of the
    bridge are the human, capital, and natural resources it consumes. To build a bridge requires the
    labour of many people, including engineers and construction wor­kers. The capital resources these people use include a variety of tools and machines. Building a bridge
    also requires natural resources.
    Since resources are limited and human wants are unlimited, people and societies must make choices about what they want most. Each choice involves costs. The value of time,
    money, goods and services given up in making a choice is called opportunity cost.
    When people make a choice between two possible uses of their resources, they are making a tradeoff between them.
    Then, society will understand the true costs of making one decision rather than another, and can make the decision that best fits its values and goals.
    How can the concepts of opportunity costs and tradeoffs be used to help explain how the economy works? One way is to construct a simple plan of the economy called an economic
    model. The simple plan helps economists to
    analyse economic problems, seek solutions, and make comparisons between the economic model and the real world.
    One of the most important choices a society makes is between producing capital goods and producing consumer goods. If a nation increases its production of consumer goods, its
    people will live better lives today. However, if a nation increases its produc­tion of capital goods, its people may live better in the future.
    Since every economic decision requires a choice, economics is a study of tradeoffs. When you
    analyse each side of a tradeoff, you can make better decisions.
    №11. Pricing policies.
    There are two types of pricing policies: to concern price emphasis and to emphasize low prices. The price emphasis charge appropriate prices, it encourages sales, but the low
    prices don’t give extra services (some people are interested in low prices and forget about extra services). The price determines the number of sales. A good example of price emphasis
    is loss leader pricing. It means that you chose one item and sell it at a very low price. The consumer buys it and decides to buy something else, because he gets some extra cash.
    There is also off-even pricing: it produces a favorable psychological effect (79,99$).
    And now something about de-emphasis: it concerns high quality expensive items. Consumers don’t call attention to the price at all.
    №3. Utility and prices.
    Commodities of different kinds satisfy our wants in different ways. For example: food, car, medicine, books satisfy very different wants. This characteristic of satisfying a
    want is known in economics as “utility”. Utility and usefulness are different things. For example: a submarine may or may not be useful in time of peace, but it satisfy a want. Many
    nations want submarine. Economists say that utility is “the relationship between a consumer and a commodity”.
    Utility varies between different people and different nations. For example: somebody can be a vegetarian and he will be rate the utility of vegetable very highly,
    while somebody who eats meat can rate the utility of meat very highly. And about nations: mountain-republic like Switzerland has little interest in submarines
    while maritime nations rate then very highly.
    Utility varies is also in relation of time. For example: in wartime the utility of bombs and guns is high. Utility of the commodity is also depend from quantity. If paper is
    freely available, people will not be so much interested in buying too much of it. If there is an excess of paper, the relative demand for paper will go down.
    Let’s speak about prices.
    Individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants. But theoretical he can do it. For example, if he byes a lot of
    smth., let’s say a lot of oil, or somebody discover a lot of oil, the price of oil will change on the international market.
    Now let’s speak about desire.
    The consumer’s desire for a commodity tends to diminish (
    ди
    миниш
    ) as he buys more units of it. Economists call this tendency the Low of Diminishing Marginal Utility.
    The interaction of buyers and sellers determines the prices for goods and services. If the price is too low, a shortage will develop and if the price is too high, a surplus will
    develop.
    In a market economy, prices are the result of the needs of both buyers and sellers. The sellers will supply more goods at higher prices. The buyer will buy more goods at lower
    prices. Some prices is satisfactory to both buyers and sellers. This price is called an equilibrium price.
    №4 Supply and demand
    In a market economy, the actions of buyers and sellers set the prices of goods and services. The price, in turn, determine what is produced, how it is produced and who will bay
    it. Supply, the quantity of a product that suppliers will provide, is the seller’s side of a market transaction. Suppliers usually want the price that allows them to make the most
    money. Demand, the quantity of a product consumer want, is a buyer’s side of a market transaction. Buyers want the price that gives them the most value for the least c...

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