How "DNA" testing works Анализ "ДНК" как проверяющие работы)

    Дисциплина: Иностранные языки
    Тип работы: Отчет по практике
    Тема: How "DNA" testing works Анализ "ДНК" как проверяющие работы)

    The tools for solving rapes and murders have improved rapidly. Five years ago DNA tests couldn’t link suspects to hair or semen found on a victim. Today a crime lab can identify
    unique DNA patterns in a tiny sample of just 100 to 200 cells. The steps scientists take to implicate or exonerate suspects:
    biological materials from the crime scene and the suspect under investigation, such as blood, hair, semen or saliva. Every cell is a unique library of DNA sequences. The goal is
    to find out if the forensic and suspect’s samples match.
    pure DNA by mixing the sample with chemicals that break down other cellular material. DNA molecules consists of paired filaments that interlock like zippers, and each filament is
    made up of chemicals “bases” (A, C, T and G) aligned in unique sequences.
    the DNA by separating paired filaments and mixing them with short fragments known as primers. When a primer locks onto a particular site on a sample DNA molecule, it triggers
    production of a longer fragment that matches a piece of the sample.
    Segregate the resulting DNA strands. A sample mixed with 13 primers multiplies into millions of distinctive molecules. Exposed to an electrical current, the molecules
    a sorted into color-coded bands on a gel.
    the crimescene samples with the suspect’s. Scientists say it’s virtually impossible for unrelated people to match up perfectly on 13 different levels. If samples do, odds that
    they’re from one person are overwhelming.
    Helped prove the innocence of Anthony
    Porter, who at one point had been just two days shy of
    lethal injection for a pair of
    murders. Once again, the issue in Illinois wasn\'t the morality of death sentences, but the dangerously sloppy way in which they were handed out. Once again a confession from
    another man helped erase doubt that the man convicted of the crime, who has an IQ of
    had committed it.
    By last fall the list of men freed from death row in Illinois had grown to
    That\'s when the Chicago Tribune published a lav­ishly researched series explaining why so many capital cases were suspect. The Trib­une’s digging found that almost half of
    death-penalty convictions in Illinois in­volved one of four shaky components: de­fense attorneys who were later suspended or
    disbarred, jailhouse snitches eager to short­en their own sentences, questionable \"hair analysis\" evidence or black defendants con­victed by all-white juries. What\'s more, in the
    weeks after those stories appeared, two more men were freed from death row. That pushed the total to
    - one more than the number of inmates Illinois had executed since reinstating the death penalty in
    The Porter case and the Tribune series were enough for Governor Ryan. On Jan.
    he declared a moratorium on Illinois execu­tions, and appointed a commission to see whether the legal process for handling capi­tal cases in Illinois can be fixed. Unless he gets
    a guarantee that the system can be made perfect, Ryan told NEWSWEEK last week, \"there probably won\'t be any more deaths,\" at least while he\'s governor. \"I believe there are cases where
    the death penalty is appropriate,\" Ryan said. \"But we\'ve got
    make sure we have the right person. Every governor who holds this power has same fear I do.”
    But few are acting on it. In the wake of the Illinois decision, only Nebraska, Maryland, Oregon and Nrw Hampshire are reviewing their systems. The governors of the other states
    that allow the death penalty apparently think it works adequately. If they want to revisit the issue, they might consider the following factors:
    Race: The role of race and the death penalty is often misunderstood. On one level there\'s the charge of institutional racism: 98
    percent of prosecutors are white, and, according to the NAAGP, Legal Defense Fund they are much more likely to ask for the death penalty for a black-on-white crime than when
    blacks are the victims. Blacks convicted of major violent offenses are more likely than white con­victs to end up on death row. But once they get there, blacks are less likely
    white death-row inmates to he executed because authori­ties are on the defensive about seeming to target African-Americans. The re­sult is both discrimination
    and reverse discrimination - with deadly consequences.
    The risk of errors: The more people on death row, the greater chance of mis­takes. There are common ele­ments to cases where terrible errors have been made: when police and
    prosecutors are pressured by the community to \"solve\" a notorious mur­der; when there\'s no DNA evidence or reliable eyewitnesses; wnen the crime is es­pecially heinous and draws large
    amounts of pretrial publicity; when defense at­torneys have limited re­sources, if authorities were particularly vigilant when these issues were at play, they might identify
    problematic cases earlier.
    Deterrence: Often the first argument of death-penalty supporters. But studies of the subject are all over the lot, with no evidence ever estab­lished of a deterrent effect. When
    parole was more common, die argument earned more logic. But nowadays first-degree mur­derers can look forward to life without pa­role if caught, which should in theory deter diem as
    much as die deadi penalty. It\'s hard to imagine a criminals thinking: \"Well, since
    might get the death penalty for this crime,
    won\'t do it. But if it was only life in prison, I\'d go ahead.\"
    inadequate counsel: Beyond the incompe­tent lawyers who populate any court-ap­pointed system, Congress and the Clinton administration have put the nation\'s
    death-row inmates in an agonizing Catch-22. According to the American Bar Associa­tion Death Penalty Representation Project, in a state like California, about one third of
    death-row inmates must wait for years to be assigned lawyers to handle their state direct appeals. And at the postconviction level in some suites, inmates don\'t have access to lawyers
    at all. The catch isdiatdie
    Terrorism and Effective Deatii Penalty Act has a statute of limitations requiring diat in­mates file federal habeas corpus petitions (requests for federal court review) within one
    year after die end of their direct state appeal. In other words, because they have no lawyer after their direct appeals, inmates often help­lessly watch die clock run out on their
    chance for federal review. This cuts down on frivo­lous appeals—but also on ones that could re­veal gross injustice.
    Fact-finding: Most states aren\'t as lucky as Illinois. They don\'t have reporters and in­vestigators digging into die details of old cases. As die deadi penalty becomes routine and
    less newsworthy, the odds against real investiga­tion grow even worse.
    even when fresh evidence does surface, most states place high barriers against its use after a trial. This has been standard in the legal system for generations, but it makes
    little sense when an inmate\'s life is at stake.
    Standards of guilt:
    In mos...

    Забрать файл

    Похожие материалы:

Заказывайте напрямую у исполнителя!

© 2006-2016 Все права защищены