Kazahstan

    Дисциплина: Разное
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Kazahstan

    Our Homeland –

    Kazakstan

    Republik of

    Kazakstan is situated in the very

    centre

    of the Eurasian continent.

    Area: 2.720.000

    sg. km (i.e. the country is the 9

    th largest in the world). Common border with Russia, China, Uzbekistan,

    Kyrghyzstan and Turkmenistan.

    Climate is sharply continental. Average winter temperature in January from - 1°C - 5°C (south) to -20°C (North). In summer the temperature varies from

    +18°C to

    +30°C.

    Natural zones: forest-steppes and steppes, deserts and semi-deserts.

    Landscape: the overwhelming portion of the territory is occupied with plains, plateaus, low hills, low lands with only 10 % of its territory

    accounting for the mountains of

    Tien

    Shan,

    Tarbagatay and

    Altay.

    Main waterways are

    Yertys,

    Syrdaria, Oral,

    Ishim,

    Tobol,

    Ili,

    Shu, Caspian and

    Aral Seas, lakes

    Balkhash,

    Alakol,

    Tenghiz and

    Sasykkol.

    Mineral resources:

    Kazakstani entrails

    harbour over a half of world chromium reserves with lead,

    zink, copper, silver and gold into the bargain.

    Kazakstan ranks first in the world as to tungsten reserves, second – in phosphorus ores, third – in manganese, fourth – in lead and molybdenum and eighth – in iron

    ores.

    The Constitution defines the state system as a form of presidential republic considering it the most flexible version in conditions of today. The

    President ensures coordinated performance of all the branches of state power and accountability of power bodies to the people. Parliament of the

    Republic is the supreme representative authority in the country: it performs legislative functions. Executive power is assumed by the Government of the country.

    The country recognizes ideological and political pluralism. All public associations enjoy equal

    rights in the

    fase of the Law.

    National currency of the Republic –

    tenghe.

    Ethnically the more than 17-million strong population of

    Kazakstan is rather diverse. Along with the two major groups,

    Kazaks and Russians, there reside over 100 other nationalities. Among them are Ukrainians,

    Byelorussians, Germans,

    Uzbeks,

    Tatars,

    Uigurs,

    Azerbaijanians, and many others. The people of

    Kazakstan has every reason to be proud of political stability in the state and of

    traditionally friendly inter-ethnic relations.

    State language of the Republic is

    Kazak. Russian enjoys the status of the official language.

    Economically,

    Kazakstan is divided into five major regions: Central, North, South, West and East ones.

    Astana remains the capital of the country. Until then both

    Astana and

    Almaty are the seats of the President\'s residencies.

    Industry – the Basis of the Economy.

    Tremendous is the

    contribution made by industrial enterprises into building of the gross national product of the Republic of

    Kazakstan. Major industries in the Republic are production of mineral wealth, chemistry, power engineering and metallurgy. No less significant branches as

    machine-building, light-and food industries.

    The produce of mining-and-smelting works enjoys fine demand abroad which makes it major source of hard currency influx. At present they have

    elaborated

    programmes of

    rarional development of mining basis, of reconstruction and updating of dressing and such other smelting

    works. Besides there have been launched new industries to put out produce of supreme commodity readiness.

    East

    Kazakstan is to host a titanium-producing industry of its own which is expected to put out

    slags, sponge titanium, metallic titanium, rolled products, titanium white.

    Export deliveries of industrial products manufactured in

    Kazakstan are effected to more than a hundred foreign countries.

    Agriculture

    Kazakstan – is one of the leading grain producers in the world. In grain-growing regions they cultivate mainly strong and durum varieties of wheat with high content of

    gluten. Worth noting is that these are the very grades which enjoy high demand in the world market.

    Kazakstan is the country where they sow rice, buckwheat, rape, soy-beans, oats, ...

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