Английские фамилии

    Дисциплина: Иностранные языки
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Английские фамилии

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    -9.25pt;\" вид антропонима.

    Наследуемое официальное именование, указывающее на принадлежность человека к определённой семье. span

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    s population in England, the United States and Canada,

    Australia, and in fact the whole English-speaking world had their beginning long ago in England.p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-right:

    -9.25pt;\"There are many ways in English family names began, so many that there are

    whole books about them.\"

    lang=\"EN-US\"About a thousand years ago there were

    very few people living in the British Isles. Towns and villages were very small, and in the countryside people lived far from each other. Because there were so few people, almost everyone

    had only one name. A name such as John, David or Mary was all that was needed.span style=\"font-size:

    11pt; font-family: Arial;\" lang=\"EN-US\"As time went on, more and more people appeared in the towns and countryside of Britain. To distinguish

    (span

    style=\"font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial;\") one John by name from another people began to

    add a family name to the first names. When , it was used as a family name. There are many

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    Neil meant

    lang=\"EN-US\"After the Norman conquest people in England began to use the Norman way of showing who a

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    style=\"margin-right: -9.25pt;\"Later still family names came from the kind of

    work done by people. Many family names first began when people were described as John the Smith ( font-family:

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    style=\"margin-right: -9.25pt;\"One way to distinguish between one person and

    another was to say where they lived. In this way places also became family names. For example, if John lived near the water, he was called or simply

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    11pt; font-family: Arial;\" lang=\"EN-US\" was not the same John as the one who lived by the

    bridge. Other names of this kind are Hill, Rivers, Waters, p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-right:

    -9.25pt;\"In many towns and villages in Britain today you can see how many of

    English family names began. Even the word , which is another family name, means

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    style=\"font-size: 11pt; font-family: Arial;\"). Nicknames are very personal. They describe

    physical or other characteristics and served in the past to distinguish one man, and then his family, from another. and

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    Children take their

    father

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    11pt; font-family: Arial; color: black;\"Возникновение и развитие фамилии как общественно-исторической и языковой категории тесно связано с главными этапами социально-экономического

    развития человечества. До определенной ступени развития человечество не имело фамильных имен. В XI-XII вв. наиболее распространенными мужскими именами были William, Robert, Ralph, Richard.

    В конце XIV в. имя John было примерно у 25% всего мужского населения Англии. Дж. Хьюз, исследовавший английские фамилии, пишет, что если бы в то время где-нибудь на рынке в Уэльсе было

    произнесено имя John Johnes, то на него отклик...

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