География и окружающая среда Англии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии и Шотландии (на английском языке)Дисциплина: Иностранные языки
Тип работы: Реферат
Тема: География и окружающая среда Англии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии и Шотландии (на английском языке)
Geography of Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland is at its nearest point only 21km (13 miles) from Scotland. It has 488-km (303-mile) border in the south and
vest with the Irish Republic. At its centre lies
Neagh, Britain’s largest freshwater lake (381sq km, 147sq miles). Many of the principal towns lie in valleys leading from the lough, including the capital,
Belfast, which stands at the mouth of the river Lagan. The Mourne Mountains, rising sharply in the south-east, include Slieve Donard, Northern Ireland’s highest peak (852 m, 2,796
Environment of Scotland.
Scotland’s countryside contains rich variety of wildlife, with some species not found elsewhere in Britain. There are 71 national
nature reserves and over 1,300 Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Four regional parks and 40 national scenic areas have been designated, covering 13 per cent of the land surface.
Four of the 11 forest parks in Great Britain are in Scotland, and a fifth spans the border between Scotland and England.
There are extensive areas of picturesque hill, lake and mountain country, and the countryside supports a variety of
plants and wildlife. There are three National Parks (Snowdonia, the Brecon Becons and the Pembrokeshire Coast), five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and two national trails as
well as 31 country parks and large stretches of heritage coast. There are about 50 National Nature Reserves and over 800 Sites of
Scientific Interest. Nearly all of the rivers and canals are classified as having water of good or fair quality, and a significant improvement has been achieved in
the quality of bathing waters.
Geographical Position of Great Britain
The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and
Ireland, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 sq. km.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast
of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders on the Irish Republic in the south. The island
of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the west) and Scotland (the northern part of the
There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England almost along
its middle, the Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. Ben Nevis, the tallest peak of the
Highlands, is only 1,343 m high.
There is very little country except in the region known as East Anglia.
Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest and the longest of the British rivers, it is over
300 km long. Some of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Tyne , Clyde and Bristol Avon.
Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources, it has some deposits of coal, and iron ore and vast deposits of oil
and gas that were discovered in the North Sea. The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain.
Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Its weather is
changeable, but there are few extremes of temperature. Britain is major world producer of
oil, natural gas
and coal. Since 1980 it has been self-sufficient in energy in net terms.
Woodland covers nearly 2-4 hectares in Britain: about 13 per cent of Scotland, 12 per cent of Wales, 73 per cent of England,
and 52 per cent of Northern Ireland. British woodlands meet 12 per cent of the country’s consumption of wood and wood products.
Over three-quarters of Britain’s varied landscape is used for agriculture.