Женщины и курение (Women’s Health and Smoking)

    Дисциплина: Иностранные языки
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Женщины и курение (Women’s Health and Smoking)

    Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

    Федеральное Агентство по Образованию

    Государственное Образовательное Учреждение

    Высшего Профессионального Образования

    Череповецкий Государственный Университет

    Гуманитарный Институт

    Кафедра Английской Филологии

    Специальность

    031001 - филология

    Реферат

    : “Women’s Health and Smoking”

    Выполнила: Толоконцева Н.А.

    Группа: 2ФА-24

    Проверила:

    ст.преп. Швец В.М.

    Череповец

    , 2005

    Report: Women’s health and smoking

    Plan:

    Introduction

    Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

    History of Advertising Strategies

    Health Consequence of Tobacco Use Among Women

    Diseases:

    Lung Cancer

    Other Cancers

    Cardiovascular Disease

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Function

    Menstrual Function

    Bone Density and Fracture Risk

    Other Conditions

    Health Consequences of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Smoking and Reproductive Outcomes, Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant Women

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Reproductive Outcomes

    Smoking Prevalence and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy

    What Is Need to Reduce Smoking Among Women

    New European anti-smoking campaign

    Quitting Smoke and Attempts to Quit

    Conclusion

    The Literature List

    Introduction

    This report summarizes what is now known about smoking among women, including patterns and trends in smoking habits, factors associated with starting to

    smoke and continuing to smoke, the consequences of smoking on women’s health and interventions for ending and prevention. What the report also makes clear is how the tobacco industry

    has historically and contemporarily created marketing specifically targeted at women. Smoking is the leading known cause of preventable death and disease among women. In 2000, far

    more women died of lung cancer than of breast cancer. A number of things need to be acted on to control the epidemic of smoking and smoking-related diseases among women throughout the

    world.

    Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

    Cigarette smoking was rare among women in the early 20th century. Cigarette smoking became prevalent among women after it did among men, and smoking

    prevalence has always been lower among women than among men. However, the gender-specific difference in smoking prevalence narrowed between 1965 and 1985. Since 1985, the decline in

    prevalence among men and women has been comparable.

    prevalence declined very

    little from 1992 through 1998.

    The prevalence of current smoking is three times higher among women with 9-11 years of education (32.9%) than among women with 16 or more years of education

    (11.2%).

    Smoking prevalence is higher among women living below the poverty level (29.6%) than among those living at or above the poverty level (21.6%).

    Girls who initiate smoking are more likely than those who do not smoke to have parents or friends who smoke. They also tend to have weaker attachments to parents

    and family and stronger attachments to peers and friends. They perceive smoking prevalence to be higher than it actually is, are inclined to risk taking and rebelliousness, have a

    weaker commitment to school or religion, have less knowledge of the adverse consequences of smoking and the addictiveness of nicotine, believe that smoking can control weight and

    negative moods, and have a positive image of smokers.

    Women who continue to smoke and those who fail at attempts to stop smoking tend to have lower education and employment levels than do women who quit smoking. They

    also tend to be more addicted to cigarettes, as evidenced by the smoking of a higher number of cigarettes per day, to be cognitively less ready to stop smoking, to have less social

    support for stopping, and to be less confident in resisting temptations to smoke.

    The level of nicotine dependence is strongly associated with the quantity of cigarettes smoked per day.

    When results are stratified by the number of cigarettes smoked per day, girls and women who smoke appear to be equally dependent on nicotine, as ...

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