Интонация

    Дисциплина: Иностранные языки
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: Интонация

    Intonation is the music of the language.

    It\'s important to recognize the meaning behind the tones used in everyday speech, and to be able to use them so that there are no misunderstandings between the speaker and the

    listener. It is generally true that mistakes in pronunciation of sounds can be overlooked, but mistakes in intonation make a lasting impression.

    Intonation has always been a difficult thing to define. According to traditional descriptions, intonation is «the melody of speech», and is to be analysed in

    terms of variations in pitch. Intonation is said to indicate the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, so that a sentence like \'I think it\'s time to go now\' can be said in a happy

    way, a sad way, an angry way, and so on. While this is certainly true, there is clearly more than just pitch varia­tion involved in conveying such things, so the definition of

    inton­ation becomes considerably more complicated. It is clear that when we are expressing emotions, we also use different voice qualities, different speaking rates, facial

    expressions, gestures, and so on. We must indicate what type of information tye are presenting and how it is structured, and at the same time we must keep our listeners\' attention and

    their participation in the exchange of information. Communicative interaction would be much more difficult without intonation: think how many misunderstandings between people arise in

    the exchange of e-mail messages, where intonation cannot play a role.

    In English, as in many other languages, pitch is an important com­

    ponent of accentuation, or prominence, both at the level of individual words and at the level of longer utterances. In general, we distinguish

    between pitches which are relatively steady-state, i.e. which do not

    change level perceptibly, and those which change by stepping or slid­

    up or down to another pitch level, as illustrated in the figure below.

    English intonation characteristically slides or transitions gradually from

    one pitch level to the next rather than stepping up or down abruptly

    from one pitch level to the next. Thus, English intonation is best repre­sented by \"humps\" and \"waves\" rather than by \"angles\" and \"steps\".

    Sliding contour

    Stepping contour

    SHAPE

    \\* MERGEFORMAT

    If we look at a typical example, we would expect a falling pitch pattern on a statement like this:

    You are

    from

    London

    SHAPE

    \\* MERGEFORMAT

    but a rising pitch pattern if the same words are used as a question:

    You are

    from

    London

    SHAPE

    \\* MERGEFORMAT

    Other examples of meaning being changed by differences in intonation are - the difference between

    won`t

    with

    anyone

    SHAPE

    \\* MERGEFORMAT

    won`t

    with

    anyone

    Is the first one (with a falling movement on «any») says that she will go out with nobody, while the second (with a falling-rising pitch movement) says that

    she is careful about who she goes with.

    The pitch of the voice is determined by the frequency with which the vocal cords vibrate., The frequency of vibration of the vocal cords is in turn determined by their thickness

    their length and their tension. The modal pitch of the voice, i.e. one\'s natural average pitch level, depends on the size of the vocal cords. In general, men have thicker and longer

    vocal cords than women and children do. As a result, the modal pitch of

    a man\'s voice is generally lower than that of a woman or a child.

    In addition to its modal pitch, every individual voice has a pitch

    range

    which can be achieved by adjustments of the vocal cords.

    tightening the vocal cords, a person can raise the pitch of the voice

    (vocal pitch);

    by loosening them, one can lower vocal pitch.

    There is also a natural variation in pitch associated with the amount of air that is expended during speech. When the airflow through the

    glottis is great, it causes the vocal cords to vibrate quickly. As airflow is

    reduced, the effect on the vocal cords is diminished, and the frequency

    of vibration decreases. Although it is possible...

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