История рок музыки в ВеликобританииДисциплина: Иностранные языки
Тип работы: Реферат
Тема: История рок музыки в Великобритании
Федеральное агентство по образованию Российской Федерации
Новгородский государственный университет
им. Ярослава Мудрого
Rock music in Britain
Студент группы 1262
Александрова Г. П.
History of British music
Little survives of the early music of Britain, by which is meant the music that was used by the people before the establishment of musical notation in the medieval period. Much
that survives of folk music must have had its origins in this period, although the melodies played by
morris dancers and other traditional groups can also be from a later period.
Some of the earliest music to remain is either church music, or else is in the form of carols or ballads dating from the 16th century or earlier.
Troubadors carried an international courtly style across western Europe. It was common in times before copyright for melodies to be interchangeable, and the same melodies
will often have been used (with differing words) for secular and religious purposes. Melodies like that of the Sussex Carol or
Greensleeves will have had a long history of eclectic use over the centuries.
During the 15th century, a vigorous tradition of polyphony developed in Britain, as exemplified in the music of composers such as
Leonel Power, John
Dunstable and Robert
Fayrfax. The music of this school was famous on the continent, and occasionally rivaled the music of the contemporary
Burgundian school in expressiveness and renown; indeed
Dunstable is recognized as one of the strongest influences on the early development of the music of the
Burgundians. Unfortunately, however, the vast majority of British music manuscripts from this period were destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries carried out
by Henry VIII in the late 1530s; only a few isolated survivals remain, including the Old Hall Manuscript, the Eton
Choirbook, the Winchester
Troper, and a handful of scattered sources from the continent.
16th to 17th Centuries
With the growth in wealth and leisure-time for the noble classes, tastes in music began to diverge sharply. While in the early part of the period it is possible for tavern songs
like Pastime with Good
Companie to be attributed (apocryphally) to King Henry VIII, by the middle 16th Century there were distinct styles of music enjoyed by the differing social classes.
Renaissance influences made the acquisition of musical knowledge an almost essential attribute for the nobleman and woman, and ability to play an instrument became an almost mandatory
Rennaisance influence also internationalized courtly music in terms of both instruments and content, the lute dulcimer and early forms of the harpsichord were played,
ballads and madrigals were sung. The
pavane and galliard were danced. Henry Purcell became court composer to King Charles II and wrote incidental music to plays and events.
For other classes instruments like pipe, tabor, bagpipe
hurdygurdy and crumhorn accompanied folk music and community dance. The fiddle gradually grew in popularity. Differing regional styles of folk music developed, in
geographically separated areas such as
Northumbria, London and the West Country.
From about 1588 to 1627, a group of composers known as the British Madrigal School became well-known in Britain and abroad. These
madrigalists composed light a cappella songs for three to six voices, based on Italian models. The School began when Nicholas
transalpina in 1588, using poetic forms like the sonnet and inspired by the work of Alfonso
Ferrabosco, an Italian composer in Elizabeth
As courtly music grew more elaborate and
internationalised, with composers such as Handel and Mozart, writing operas, oratorios and symphonic works, an British musician called John Gay produced The Beggar\'s
Opera, a revolutionary popular opera which used British folk forms.