История компьютера и компьютерной техники

    Дисциплина: Программирование
    Тип работы: Реферат
    Тема: История компьютера и компьютерной техники

    ESSAY

    The Comparative Analisis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine.

    USA.

    HOWARD H.AIKEN AND THE COMPUTER

    It is not proposed to discuss here the origins and significance of the stored program. Nor I wish to deal with the related problem of whether the machines before the stored

    program were or were not “computers”. This subject is complicated by the confusion in actual names given to machines. For example, the ENIAC, which did not incorporate a stored

    program, was officially named a computer: Electronic Numeral Integrator And Computer. But the first stored-program machine to be put into regular operation was Maurice Wiles’ EDSAC:

    Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator. It seems to be rather senseless to deny many truly significant innovations (by H.H.Aiken and by Eckert and Mauchly), which played an

    important role in the history of computers, on the arbitrary ground that they did not incorporate the stored-program concept. Additionally, in the case of Aiken, it is significant

    that there is a current computer technology that does not incorporate the stored programs and that is designated as (at least by TEXAS INSTRUMENTS

    ) as “Harvard architecture”, though, it should more properly be called “Aiken architecture”. In this technology the program is fix and not subject to any alteration save by

    intent - as in some computers used for telephone switching and in ROM.

    OPERATION OF THE ENIAC.

    Aiken was a visionary, a man ahead of his times. Grace Hopper and others remember his prediction in the late 1940s, even before the vacuum tube had been wholly replaced by the

    transistor, that the time would come when a machine even more powerful than the giant machines of those days could be fitted into a space as small as a shoe box.

    Some weeks before his death Aiken had made another prediction. He pointed out that hardware considerations alone did not give a true picture of computer costs. As hardware has

    become cheaper, software has been apt to get more expensive. And then he gave us his final prediction: “The time will come”, he said, “when manufacturers will gave away hardware in

    order to sell software”. Time alone will tell whether or not this was his final look ahead into the future.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTERS IN THE USA

    Although the work at XeroxPARC was crucial, it was not the spark that took PCs out of the hands of experts and into the popular imagination. That happened inauspiciously

    in January 1975, when the magazine Popular Electronics put a new kit for hobbyists, called the Altair, on its cover. for the first time, anybody with $400 and a soldering iron could

    buy and assemble his own computer. The Altair inspired Steve Wosniak and Steve Jobs to build the first Apple computer, and a young college dropout named Bill Gates to write software

    for it. Meanwhile. the person who deserves the credit for inventing the Altair, an engineer named Ed Roberts, left the industry he had spawned to go to medical school. Now he is a

    doctor in small town in central Georgia.

    To this day, researchers at Xerox and elsewhere pooh-pooh the Altair as too primitive to have made use of the technology they felt was needed to bring PCs to the masses. In a

    sense, they are right. The Altair incorporated one of the first single-chip microprocessor - a semiconductor chip, that contained all the basic circuits needed to do calculations -

    called the Intel8080. Although the 8080 was advanced for its time, it was far too slow to support the mouse, windows, and elaborate software Xerox had developed. Indeed, it

    wasn’t until 1984, when Apple Computer’s Macintosh burst onto the scene, that PCs were powerful enough to fulfill the original vision of researchers. “The kind of computing that

    people are trying to do today is just what we made at PARC in the early 1970s,” says Alan Kay, a former Xerox researcher who jumped to Apple in the early 1980s.

    MACINTOSH PERFORMA 6200/6300

    Research...

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